WEEK 4 Maple Trees Language Arts – In a dictionary look up some of the words listed in these sites and make a glossary of maple syrup related words to include in your notebook at the end of the unit study. You can also use the glossary at the end of the VIRTUAL TOUR page on this website. http://www.edsanders.com/lan029.htm 2+ http://www.park.co.somerset.nj.us/maple_sugaring.htm#Glossary%20of%20Maple%20Sugaring%20Terms (bottom of page) 3+ http://www.rbnc.org/maplesyr.htm 3+ History – http://www.stevesauter.com/Maple_Syrup_Lesson_Plan.html 3+ Make a timeline of maple syrup history using the information on this site. AND Geography – Using the map on this site, outline and color in the areas in North America where maple syrup is made on a map you have drawn or had copied. Mark Salem, Indiana (the hometown of Leane and Michael’s Sugarbush) on the map as a maple syrup producer; mark the locations of other syrup producers in Indiana if you want to research it further. http://geography.anu.edu.au/associated/fpt/nwfp/maplesyrup/maple3_copy.html#anchor8702944 2+ Science – Study about the composition of sap and syrup using this site and make a chart listing the components of both. http://www.ucdsb.on.ca/athens/maple/science.htm link not working http://www.park.co.somerset.nj.us/maple_sugaring3.htm#The%20Sap 3+ More Science – Read and study all about maple trees. Add a list of maple tree facts to your notebook. http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/trees/pages/sugarmaple.html 45 http://bcn.net/~thatcher/the.htm 13 http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/forestry/Education/ohiotrees/maplesugar.htm 2+ http://gomez.mkl.com/jeffs/maple/tree.html 24 http://www.park.co.somerset.nj.us/maple_sugaring.htm#The%20Sugar%20Maple%20Tree 3+ http://www.wildwnc.org/trees/Acer_saccharum.html 45 What is a Sugarbush? http://www.park.co.somerset.nj.us/maple_sugaring2.htm#The%20Sugar%20Bush 3+ This site talks about the significance of the seasons in maple syrup making process. http://www.massmaple.org/season.html 2+ A fun activity about maple trees, maple leaves and pancakes!!! http://fga.freac.fsu.edu/academy/k1us.htm#activity18 1+ This site has some fun activities about trees in general: http://www.startribune.com/education/arbor/arbor3.html 1+ Use the following information to learn about sap, remember to refer to it when you are studying syrup and making maple candy in the week 9science activity. MAPLE WHAT? Maple sap  maple sap looks like water when it flows from the trees; it contains water, amino acids and traces of vitamins and minerals; sap is 2  3% sugar; it takes 40 gallons of sap that is 2.2% sugar (the sugar content of an average maple tree) to make one gallon of pure maple syrup; sap weighs 8.34 pounds per gallon, the same as water Maple syrup  pure maple syrup is maple sap which has been boiled to 7 degrees F above the boiling point of water (the boiling point of water changes every day with the weather and barometric pressure); the proper density of pure maple syrup is 32 degrees F Baume (a standard scale used to measure sugar concentration in syrup, measures specific gravity, this is what our hydrometer measures) at the boiling point; pure maple syrup is 67% sugar and weighs 11.0 pounds per gallon at 60 degrees F Maple cream  a pure maple spread which has been made by heating pure maple syrup to 232 degrees F, cooling it to about 70 degrees and stirring vigorously to whip air into the thickened substance Maple candy  made from pure maple syrup by heating it to 239 degrees F, cooling it to 155 degrees, stirring and pouring it into molds to cool and harden Granulated maple sugar  made by heating pure maple syrup to 252 degrees F, removing it from the heat and stirring until maple sugar granules form, also called Indian sugar. Math  24 Learn about the diameter and height of trees, using one of these websites, figure out how many taps go in each tree, estimate yield of sap and syrup per season. http://www.startribune.com/education/arbor/arbor3.html 3+ http://www.rbnc.org/maplesyr.htm (middle of page) 3+ http://www.umext.maine.edu/onlinepubs/htmpubs/forestry/7036.htm 3+ http://www.umext.maine.edu/onlinepubs/htmpubs/forestry/7036.htm 3+ 1 Would the following items be measured in inches or feet? a spile_______ a maple tree ________ a syrup jug_________ a piece of maple candy_________ a sap tank_________ a sugarhouse_________ Art  Sketch a sugar maple leaf using the information and pictures on these sites. http://fga.freac.fsu.edu/academy/k1us.htm#activity18 http://www.goshen.edu/merrylea/sugar/tell.htm http://geography.anu.edu.au/associated/fpt/nwfp/maplesyrup/maple3_copy.html#anchor8702944 http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/forestry/Education/ohiotrees/maplesugar.htm http://gomez.mkl.com/jeffs/maple/maplleaf.gif A nice maple leaf pattern – http://www.abcteach.com/shapebooks/general/MapleLeaf1.htm You could make this project more interesting by spatter painting a maple leaf on paper by using a maple leaf stencil, toothbrush and paint. You could also do a leaf rubbing if the leaves are on the trees while you are doing this study. Another fun idea is to cut several maple leaf shapes out of a black piece of construction paper and glue it on top of a sheet of white construction paper that you have painted with watercolors or colored chalk. Or you can draw a maple tree with pencil and glue summer or fall leaves on it with torn bits of paper. Be creative!!! Or use one of these sites and make a maple leaf quilt square from paper or fabric. Blocks # 2, 4, 6, and 8 are usually dark or print fabric and the remainder of the blocks are light colored and solid. http://www.deddawn.net/quilt/art/image/oct7.gif http://www.smallexpressions.com/patterns/022.htm Music – Scott Joplin was born sometime in the mid to late 1800’s, the son of a free black woman and a slave. Known as the "King of Ragtime Writers", he wrote "Maple Leaf Rag," which became the most popular ragtime piece of the period. You can listen to "Maple Leaf Rag" and read a biography of Scott Joplin on this site (go the bottom of the page, click on "MIDI File: Maple Leaf Rag", then click on "follow this link": http://www.karadar.it/Dictionary/joplin.html You can download the sheet music for "Maple Leaf Rag" from this site: http://www.trachtman.net/ragtime/musicbooks.htm The words for "Maple Leaf Rag," written by Sydney Brown are on this site: http://www.perfessorbill.com/lyrics/lymaple.htm WEEK 5 Tapping Language Arts  Read the newspaper article from one of these links and pretend you are a newspaper reporter and write an article of your own, pretend you are involved in the process you have learned about, or pretend you have visited a syrup farm and write about it or you might decide to save this assignment and do it after you come to the festival. http://www.postgazette.com/food/20000220maple2.asp 3+ http://www.andovertownsman.com/news/20020228/FP_002.html 2+ Also use these resources for information about tapping trees: http://www.mimaplesyrup.com/Information/info_prod_1prep.htm (takes a while to load, the blue background does go away) 35 http://www.mimaplesyrup.com/Information/info_prod_2coll.htm (takes a while to load, the blue background does go away) 35 http://www.tppm.com/maple_syrup/how.html#tapped 2+ http://www.shol.com/maple/making.htm 2+ click on Tree Tapping History – Study the Indians’ tapping methods in the Origin and History section of this site http://geography.anu.edu.au/associated/fpt/nwfp/maplesyrup/maple3_copy.html#anchor8702944 3+ This site shows a wooden spile like the Indians might have used and also metal spiles like the later settlers used. http://ohioline.osu.edu/b856/b856_5.html 1+ for pictures, text is 45 Study the pictures of spiles on these sites – the wooden one at the bottom of the first photograph is a typical very early pioneer spile – the others were developed as metal became available http://www.goshen.edu/merrylea/sugar/tap/taptree.html This excellent site shows wooden and metal spile and gives a brief history of the changes in gathering methods: http://www.park.co.somerset.nj.us/maple_sugaring4.htm#The%20Spile 1+ This site has an excellent picture of a tree tapped using the same plastic spiles and tubing we use: http://www.angelfire.com/ny3/seeit/maplesyrup.html 1+ Science – Learn about the layers of trees and answer these questions. Which layer gives sap? List the functions of each layer. http://www.goshen.edu/merrylea/sugar/xsection.htm 3+ This site has some great pictures of tapping trees: http://www.goshen.edu/merrylea/sugar/tap/taptree.html 3+ http://www.rbnc.org/maplesyr.htm 3+ This site provides an interesting activity to do to learn about the transport of sap within plants: http://www.michigan.gov/scope/0%2C1607%2C715513497_13503_1350643949%2C00.html 2+ Interesting cross section pictures: http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/trees/pages/sugarmaple.html 45 THE SCIENCE OF MAPLE SYRUP Maple trees grow in the Northern Hemisphere in Asia, Europe, North America and northern Africa, but maple syrup is purely a North American phenomenon. This is because the sugar maple, from which most syrup comes, only grows in North America. All plants have sap, it is found in the stems, roots and leaves. In a tree the xylem and phloem layers, which are the two layers just beneath the bark, carry sap throughout the tree. These two layers are called the sapwood. During the seasons when the leaves are on the tree, sugar is manufactured by the leaves by a process called photosynthesis. This sugar is the food for the growing tree. When fall arrives and the tree no is no longer growing, the leftover sugar is then stored in the trunk of the tree during the winter. When spring arrives with its warm days, the sap, consisting of this stored sugar and water, travels to the branches through the xylem layer of the tree. The purpose of the sap is to provide food for the leaves when they begin to grow. The mechanism by which the sap begins to "run" is dependent on the weather. Sap only "runs" when the temperature drops below freezing and then warms up. Freezing causes the sap in the outer layer of the tree to expand, thawing causes contraction. This expanding and contracting of the sap in the tree flushes the sugar from the wood when the sap "runs." No one can adequately explain why the maple tree does what it does. The reason that the sap "runs" during freezing and thawing cycles can only be attributed to the divine nature of creation, a feature created into the maple tree by God. Some people have claimed to have made syrup from other trees such as walnut, oak, sycamore and birch, and there are accounts of the Native Americans making syrup from these trees. The maple tree is widely used because it contains the highest percentage of sugar in its sap. Maple sap is between 1  3% sugar, whereas other sap can contain as little as 0.2 % sugar. When maple sap that is 2% sugar is collected it takes 42 gallons of sap to make one gallon of pure maple syrup. Sap with varying sugar contents will produce proportionate amounts of syrup. The finished syrup is 67% sugar. Sap weighs eight pounds per gallon, as does water, whereas syrup weighs eleven pounds per gallon. Math  1 If Mr. Goering put 3 spiles in the first tree, 1 spile in the second tree and 2 spiles in the third tree, how many spiles were in the three trees altogether? *** This site has quite a few wonderful math questions for grade K – 3 or so. Have older students make harder questions about similar topics and have other siblings or friends do the problems. http://www.crockerfarm.org/ac/k/ 1+ 2 If the Goerings tapped 426 trees the first day and 397 trees the second day, how many trees did they tap altogether? *** Show the following times on the clocks below: Mr. Goering begins tapping trees: 8:00 AM Mr. Goering stops for lunch 12:30 PM Mr. Goering goes back to work 1:15 PM Mr. Goering goes in for supper 6:45 PM
3 We run 3 tappers and each tapper holds .25 gallons (1/4 gallon) of gas, we usually run the tappers four days per season, filling each one up three times a day, if gas costs $1.40 how much money do we spend each season on gas for the 3 tappers? *** If Mr. Goering tapped trees 9.5 hours on Monday, 7.5 hours on Tuesday, 6 hours on Wednesday, and then gathered and boiled sap for 13 hours on Thursday, 9.5 hours on Friday, 12 hours on Saturday and 0 hours on Sunday, how many total hours did he work this week? What is the average number of hours he worked each day? What is the median of this list of numbers? What is the mode? 4 A Sugarbush is a group of trees that are tapped to get sap to make maple syrup. On a certain farm, Sugarbush A has 600 taps tapped, Sugarbush B has 800 and Sugarbush C has 900 taps. Each tap uses an average of 15 feet of tubing. How much total tubing will be used to set up these three areas? Convert this to miles. *** Each year the tubing has to be repaired due to age, squirrels chewing holes in the lines and ice or snow damage. About 5 % of the tubing and 8% of the spiles need to be replaced. The T’s also need to be replaced at a rate 1.5 times the number of spiles. How much tubing and how many spiles and T’s will need to be replaced? This problem requires information from the previous question.) Now figure the cost of these repairs if tubing costs $.09 per foot, spiles cost $.30 each and T’s cost $.20 each. *** One twoperson team can tap 40 trees in an hour. Each tree averages 2 spiles in it. How long does it take to tap Sugarbush A? Sugarbush B? Sugarbush C? How long does it take altogether? Using this information, figure out about how many trees are in each Sugarbush. Just for fun fact – The record for our Sugarbush is tapping 200 tapholes in one hour with a twoperson team. This team was Mike and Leane and was done on flat ground with all repairs to the tubing already done. If the trees had been in a hilly area and if we had had to do the repairs as we went along, it would have taken much longer. Art – Using these resources draw and label a diagram of the layers inside a tree. http://www.goshen.edu/merrylea/sugar/xsection.htm 3+ http://www.rbnc.org/maplesyr.htm 3+ Use some of the vocabulary words you learned last week in the maple tree study to label your diagram. Take the quiz on this page too!!! You might also want to draw a picture of a maple tree using this picture as a resource: http://gomez.mkl.com/jeffs/maple/mapletre.gif WEEK 6 Gathering Language Arts – Email, write or call a maple syrup producer and ask how many trees they have tapped, how many taps they have altogether in the trees and how their sap is running so far this season, write a brief report based on this interview. Our contact information: Leane and Mike Goering Leane and Michael’s Sugarbush 321 N. Garrison Hollow Rd. Salem, IN 47167 1 877 8418851 sugrbush@wcrtc.net You could also look up other Indiana maple syrup producers (or producers in your state if you are not from Indiana) and contact them. Read this book and do some of the activities this site suggests. At Grandpa’s Sugarbush http://www.educationworld.com/a_books/books038.shtml 1+ History – Study the changes in gathering methods http://www.maplesunday.com/history.html 2+ http://geography.anu.edu.au/associated/fpt/nwfp/maplesyrup/maple3_copy.html#anchor8702944 3+ http://ohioline.osu.edu/b856/b856_5.html 45 This great site discusses the modern methods of gathering sap (great pictures): http://www.tppm.com/maple_syrup/how2.html 2+ Science  Study the reverse osmosis process discussed in these sites:. http://www.maplewoodfarm.com/processing.htm 2+ (great pictures) This site discusses reverse osmosis in great detail: http://ohioline.osu.edu/b856/b856_40.html 45 This site takes a while to load, the blue background does go away: http://www.mimaplesyrup.com/Information/info_prod_3proc_3rev.htm 34 ***Extra Credit Question – Using what you have learned in the unit study so far, what did the earliest syrup makers do that did the same job as the reverse osmosis machine without using any mechanized equipment? More Science – Study about the composition of sap and syrup using these sites and make a chart listing the components of both. http://www.ucdsb.on.ca/athens/maple/science.htm 3+ http://www.uwsp.edu/education/pcook/unitplans/syrup.htm (Energy Food science Unit – skip the hydrometer part) 2+ http://www.park.co.somerset.nj.us/maple_sugaring5.htm#Is%20It%20Syrup%20Yet 1+ http://www.behrbonn.com/literat/acahorns.htm A lot of this is very technical but some is quite useful 45 Math  Temperature – Keep track of the outdoor temperature at your home for a week. Mark which days the sap is likely to run, then check our website for information from our online diary to see if our weather was the same and if our sap ran. Make a line graph showing the temperatures during the week. http://www.goshen.edu/merrylea/sugar/FLOW.HTM 3+ http://www.goshen.edu/merrylea/sugar/flodict.htm 3+ http://bcn.net/~thatcher/trees.htm 2+ skip the Trees section and use the rest of the page http://www.uwsp.edu/education/pcook/unitplans/syrup.htm 2+ use the section titled Sugaring Weather http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/scienceques2001/20020315.htm 3+ http://gomez.mkl.com/jeffs/maple/weather.html 2+ These sites gives a good explanation of why sap runs at certain temperatures and not at others. http://www.centredaily.com/mld/centredaily/5411725.htm 2+ http://www.uvm.edu/~pmrc/treemet1.html 45 1 If 200 gallons of sap ran the first day and 300 ran the second day, how many ran altogether on both days? *** If the temperature at 8 AM was 32 and by 10 AM it was 43 , how many degrees did the temperature go up? *** Mark the following temperatures on the thermometers: Freezing weather  too cold for sap to run at 25 Water and sap freezes at 32 Sap flows well at 40 Spring is here  too warm for sap at 70 2 If 650 gallons of sap ran the first day of the maple syrup season, 725 gallons the second day and 440 gallons the third day, how many gallons ran altogether? Round this to the nearest thousand. *** If the temperature was 23 degrees at 7 AM and rose to 42 degrees by 11 AM, how many degrees did the temperature rise? *** The average time for a vacuum pump (gently draws the sap through the tubing into the collection tanks) to run on one tank of gas is 7 hours. If Mrs. Goering starts the pump when the temperature is 38 degrees at 10 AM, about when will it run out of gas? AM or PM? 3 Make a bar graph to show the following information: Use a red pencil for the high temperatures and a blue pencil for the low temperatures. Highs Lows Monday 45 21 Tuesday 41 29 Wednesday 36 32 Thursday 32 30 Friday 40 36 Saturday 45 40 Which day would be the best day for the sap to run? (Remember that the sap flows best on warm days following a freezing night) 4 The dimensions of one of the sap holding tanks is 4 feet tall by 4 feet wide by 13 feet long. Figure the volume of the tank in cubic feet. (volume =length x width x height) To change cubic feet to gallons you multiply by 7.48 but lets use 7.5 to make it easier. Figure the capacity in gallons of this sap tank and round to the nearest hundred. This is the actual capacity of one of the sap tanks at the Goerings’ Sugarbush. *** All the sap at Sugarbush A goes into one 700 gallon tank. By the end of the first hour of the first sap run, the tank had 100 gallons in it. The following table gives the time and amount of sap that ran in subsequent hours: 12PM – 1PM 60 gallons 1 – 2 100 gallons 2 – 3 200 gallons 3 – 4 240 gallons 4 – 5 200 gallons 5 – 6 175 gallons 6 – 7 60 gallons. At what time will the tank be full? If no sap was removed from the tank, how much sap would overflow and be wasted by 7 PM? *** At 2 PM the sap begins to be pumped out of the tank to the holding tank at the sugarhouse at a rate of 50 gallons per hour. The sap is pumped until the tank is dry. Will the tank ever overflow? (Use your answer on the capacity of the tank where you figure the volume) How many gallons of sap per hour would need to be pumped out of the tank to keep the tank from overflowing if you start pumping at 2 PM? Art – Study these drawings and engravings of sap collecting and draw or paint pictures to show different ways of collecting sap (buckets, tubing). It would also be fun to make a diorama of this by making trees and tubing and/or buckets to hang on the trees. http://collections.ic.gc.ca/heirloom_series/volume4/220221.htm WEEK 7 Boiling Language Arts – Write or email the Indiana Maple Syrup Association for information about syrup making in Indiana, and/or write to associations in other states, search for these addresses using search engines on internet. These states are the largest syrup producers: Vermont, Wisconsin, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine, Vermont, also Quebec and Ontario, Canada. Try to write to the state nearest your state. Indiana Maple Syrup Association 805 S 7^{th} St Goshen, In 46526 www.indianamaplesyrup.org email  deatline@globalsite.net Write a paragraph about evaporation of maple sap using the information in these sites: http://www.goshen.edu/merrylea/sugar/evaporator/evap.html 3+ http://www.mimaplesyrup.com/Information/info_prod_3proc.htm 34 (takes a while to load, the blue background does go away) History – Study these sites to learn about the changes in boiling methods: http://www.maplesunday.com/history.html 2+ http://www.shol.com/maple/making.htm click on Boiling Off 2+ http://ohioline.osu.edu/b856/b856_5.html 4+ Modern evaporator explained and pictured – http://www.maplewoodfarm.com/processing.htm 2+ http://www.ijs.k12.nf.ca/~voyageur/sucres/makesyrop.htm 2+ http://delnero.com/john/maplesyrup.html 1+ http://www.tppm.com/maple_syrup/boiling.html 2+ http://www.park.co.somerset.nj.us/maple_sugaring5.htm#Boiling%20Down%20–%20Evaporating 1+ Science – Try this experiment to learn about the density of liquids http://www.district11science.org/reports_78p_faq.htm 2+ (PLEASE use corn syrup in this experiment, don’t waste your delicious maple syrup!!!) Read about how maple syrup producers know when the sap has turned to syrup in the “So how do you know when it is at 66%?” section of this link: http://gomez.mkl.com/jeffs/maple/syrup.html 2+ This link briefly discusses the proper density of syrup: http://www.maplewoodfarm.com/processing.htm 2+ Explain why sap turns dark and thick when boiled into syrup. This site will give you the needed information. Look up the Mallard reaction mentioned – we don’t even know what that is!! (We’d love to know if you find out.) Some of it is quite technical but some of it is easy to understand and very interesting. http://www.behrbonn.com/literat/acahorns.htm 45 Try making your own syrup if you have maple trees available – you can order any materials you need from us http://pittsburgh.about.com/cs/pennsylvania/a/maple_syrup_3.htm 1+ please see the other links about making your own maple syrup at the end of the unit study Math – 1 The evaporator boiled for 5 hours. The amount of syrup produced for each hour is as follows: Hour 1 0 Hour 2 4 Hour 3 5 Hour 4 5 Hour 5 7 How much syrup was made? 2 If a total of 3500 gallon of sap ran on Monday and Tuesday, how many gallons of syrup can the Goerings expect to make if it takes an average of 50 gallons of sap to make one gallon of syrup? *** If 3000 gallons of sap ran today and the Goerings boiled all but 738 gallons of it in the evaporator, how many gallons did they boil? *** 3 Make a bar graph to show the following information: The Sugarbush made the following amount of syrup in each week of the 7week syrup season: Week 1 0 gallons Week 2 70 gallons Week 3 90 gallons Week 4 120 gallons Week 5 70 gallons Week 6 130 gallons Week 7 60 gallons Answer the following questions: How many gallons were made in all? In which week did they produce the least amount of syrup? In which week did they produce the most? In which two weeks did they produce the same number of gallons? 4 The evaporator will evaporate an average of 250 gallons of sap per hour. The feed tank to the evaporator starts with 500 gallons of sap in it. The Reverse Osmosis (RO) machine takes half the water out of the sap before it goes to the evaporator. The tank that feeds the RO inputs sap at a rate of 300 gallons per hour (don’t forget what the RO does to the sap.) There is unlimited sap available to the RO at this particular time. In how many hours will the evaporator feed tank be empty? *** In an average year the Sugarbush makes 800 gallons of pure maple syrup. It takes 50 gallons of sap to make one gallon of syrup. A gallon of sap weighs about 8 pounds. A gallon of syrup weighs about 11 pounds. There are 2000 pounds in a ton. Calculate the tons of sap collected and the tons of syrup produced in a year. Using the information in the previous problem, find the excess number of tons of water that was removed from the sap to make 800 gallons of syrup. Art – Have children draw a sugarhouse with crayon, have younger children make steam billowing out of cupola with cotton balls, have older children draw steam with chalk (have them leave the top part of the sugarhouse uncolored since the chalk won’t cover the crayon and then go back and color the rest of the sugarhouse when they have colored in the steam), These sites have good pictures of sugarhouses: http://www.stevesauter.com/Maple_Syrup_Lesson_Plan.html http://ohioline.osu.edu/b856/b856_5.html http://www.uvm.edu/~pmrc/sugarcam.html Or make a diagram of an evaporator using the information in these sites: http://delnero.com/john/maplesyrup.html http://www.tppm.com/maple_syrup/boiling.html http://gomez.mkl.com/jeffs/maple/evap2.jpg
